McSema is an executable lifter. It translates ("lifts") executable binaries from native machine code to LLVM bitcode. LLVM bitcode is an intermediate representation form of a program that was originally created for the retargetable LLVM compiler, but which is also very useful for performing program analysis methods that would not be possible to perform on an executable binary directly. McSema enables analysts to find and retroactively harden binary programs against security bugs, independently validate vendor source code, and generate application tests with high code coverage. McSema isn’t just for static analysis. The lifted LLVM bitcode can also be fuzzed with libFuzzer, an LLVM-based instrumented fuzzer that would otherwise require the target source code. The lifted bitcode can even be compiled back into a runnable program! This is a procedure known as static binary rewriting, binary translation, or binary recompilation.